Resources available


National Health Education and Training

Country of Origin: Australia
Funding: Federal, Health Workforce
Online features: Focussed on the NHET-Sim simulation training and education programs for educators and technicians. Links to newsletters, conferences, opportunities for further education in simulation delivery.
Categories: Training; Educator resources; conferences.
Review: The NHET-Sim program re-opened in June 2015. This is an excellent free resource for those involved in planning and delivering simulation.

Victorian Simulation Alliance

Country of Origin: Victoria, Australia
Funding: Incorporated Not-for-profit
Online features: Information on simulation delivery and practice. Scenario library, information on education and training links, linking metro, rural and regional areas, best practice identification, facilitating research and projects. Hosts simulated facilitator network.
Categories: Scenarios; Simulation tips and tricks; research; training; conferences.
Review: This is a membership-based site. Membership is $75 per individual or $60 per individual for corporate memberships. There are plans for content such as validated scenarios to be made available to members.

Victorian Simulated Patient Network             

Country of Origin: Victoria, Australia
Funding: Federal, Health Workforce
Online features: Repository of Simulated Patient methodology, training of simulated patients, links to further information sources on SPs.
Categories: Simulated Patients; Training of Simulated Patients.
Review: Has free online learning modules that are suitable for educators, technicians and simulated patients. Also has a page of links to SP programs at universities in Australia and internationally.

Simulation Australia/ Australian Society for Simulation in Healthcare (ASSH)

Country of Origin: Australia
Funding: Not for profit
Online features: Simulation Australia exists to promote the use of simulation for the benefit of providers, practitioners and users and to increase the use of simulation in achieving organisational goals. Simulation Australia aims to support all industry sectors involved with simulation; this includes defence, emergency management, health, manufacturing, mining, research, transport and many more. The website’s main focus is on networking and information/event dissemination and promotion. ASSH is a division of Simulation Australia and promotes SimHealth and SimTecT conferences held in August each year. ASSH’s mission is to promote simulation education, training and research to enhance the safety and quality in healthcare. ASSH represents a cross-section of the Australian healthcare community who share simulation as a common interest, including healthcare professionals, academics, industry groups and policy makers. ASSH operates under the auspices of Simulation Australia Ltd and is officially affiliated with the international Society for Simulation in Healthcare (SSH).
Categories: Networking; conferences.
Review: Membership fees for Simulation Australia which gives membership to ASSH are $295 per individual with discounted corporate rates available.

Virtual Simulated Patient Resource

Country of Origin: Victoria, Australia
Funding: Federal- Health Workforce Australia
Online features: Aimed at undergraduate health professionals. Consists of online learning modules covering non-technical skills and learning through simulation activities using a virtual patient care situation.
Categories: Undergraduate education; Non-Technical skills.
Review: The scenarios are all hospital based and have a nursing/medical focus. Participants are required to make decisions as both nurse and doctor throughout the scenarios. Non-technical skills covered are teamwork, communication, leadership, decision making and situational awareness.


Healthy Simulation

Country of Origin: USA
Funding: Corporate site – Founded by Lance Baily
Online features:

Online trade magazine for the medical simulation community; product reviews, simulation news items, information and networking, job listings, product and service advertising.

NOTE: Has a LinkedIn forum with over 2,000 subscribers


Product demos; conferences; advertising; newsletters; online journals.

Review: This is a very busy website but has a lot of worthwhile content. The variety of content and frequent posts provide something for anyone regardless of their role and experience in simulation.


Country of Origin: USA (with events held around the world, including Australia)
Funding: Not-for-profit educational organisation
Online features: Website of the “Gathering of Healthcare Simulation Technology Specialists”. Website supports and documents the meetings of SimGHOSTS
Categories: Networking; training.
Review: This is a must-see for simulation technicians but is also relevant to simulation coordinators and educators. Limited free content is available. Annual membership is granted to event attendees or available for US$135, with institutional membership also available. Membership gives access to HD video recordings of previous presentations and powerpoint presentations. Members are also eligible to join a LinkedIn forum that is a valuable resource for all aspects of simulation operations. 


Country of Origin: US
Funding: Private – Founded by Arielle Glen and David Escobar
Online features: Free downloadable scenarios and moulage advice courtesy of, as well as a comprehensive catalogue of simulation-related position descriptions. Website hosts a quarterly discussion topic and features a simulation centre whose staff contribute to that topic based on their experiences and knowledge. Each quarter's topic is archived for future reference. Site also serves as the point of contact for requesting webinars and site visits for hands on troubleshooting/maintenance (in Southern California), which is provided free of charge for post warranty expiration equipment.
Categories: Training; Scenario Development; Job listings; Standard position descriptions; Discussion forum; Simulation tips and tricks.
Review: Has a useful video on SimMan3G maintenance which won the B-Line DIY video contest at SimGHOSTs 2014. Arielle is a former Laerdal field service engineer so has a wealth of knowledge and experience with all Laerdal manikins. This site is in its early stages but looks set to become a valuable resource for those involved in simulation operations.


Country of Origin: Canadian
Funding: Private – Founded by Andy Howes
Online features: Aimed at Sim Techs. A good “hands-on, how-to-do” site with free downloadable scenarios, information on AV techniques and resources, moulage recipes (and links to more moulage resources), links to useful resources for debriefing, scenario templates, forms and documentation. It has an extremely comprehensive list of links to other sim sites, print journals, scenario databases, forums, organisations and vendors.
Categories: Sim Technicians; Scenarios; Moulage; Audiovisual techniques.
Review: This is a fantastic website with amazing free resources – ultrasounds, ECG/EKG, x-ray, photographs of wounds/rashes/disclocations/burns, auscultation audio files, background noise audio files, how-to videos.

International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning

Country of Origin: USA
Funding: Auspiced by University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Nursing
Online features: INACSL promotes research and disseminates evidence based practice standards for clinical simulation methodologies and learning environments. Website supports INACSL’s conference programme, also has webinars, online journal, information on research projects and activities, links to grant opportunities. Has a LinkedIn group with over 1000 members.
Categories: Nursing; Research; Conferences; Online Journal;
Review: Published seven INACSL Standards of Best Practice for Simulation and features journal articles and regular webinars. This is a valuable resource for those involved in nursing clinical education. Joining fee is US$95 with undergraduate student, institutional and lifetime memberships also available.

Society for Simulation in Healthcare

Country of Origin: US
Funding: Not-for-profit
Online features: Website supports the work of SSIH. Directory of Sim Centres, Conferences, webinars, links to other resources and organisations, online journal and “white papers”. International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare (IMSH) conference – the world’s largest simulation conference and exhibition. Publishes peer-reviewed journal Simulation in Healthcare. Offers accreditation of healthcare simulation programs, certification for simulation educators and simulation operations specialists.
Categories: Networking; conferences; journal, research
Review: The US$175 membership fee includes a subscription to Simulation in Healthcare journal as well as a US$165 discount on IMSH conference rates. The SSH is affiliated with many international simulation professional groups and is the premier professional organisation for simulation educators.

Society in Europe for Simulation Applied to Medicine

Country of Origin: Netherlands
Funding: Not for profit professional association.
Online features: Events and information sharing website open to paid registrants. Has limited free content.
Categories: Networking; Conferences; Simulation educators.
Review: The Literature highlights section is a valuable resource Individual membership fee is 70 Euros.


Country of Origin: European
Funding: EU funded project, completed in 2013
Online features: Project to investigate and deliver resources for implementing simulation and technology based learning and training in healthcare. Includes Implementation handbook for simulation and technology-based learning; “Roadmap” for the implementation and dissemination of simulation-based learning for health and education directors and public office holders.
Categories: Technology; Programme Design.
Review: See ‘Results’ section for project deliverables and reports.

HPSN: Human Patient Simulation Network

Country of Origin: USA
Funding: CAE Healthcare
Online features: Networking site for US simulation educators and trainers. Holds an annual conference and regional conferences in Europe, Canada and Asia. Site includes news items relating to conferences and HPSN activities. Resources section includes simulation tips and tricks, simulation video tutorials and “how to” and Simulation documentation. Has an ongoing blog of simulation-related training issues and practical information, eg “Ebola: CAE Healthcare answers five important questions”, and “Video Blog: Blue Phantom Spinal Epidural and Lumbar Puncture Trainer”.
Categories: Networking; Simulation Tips and Tricks; Webinars; Laboratory Technicians.
Review: As to be expected, this site has a strong focus on CAE Healthcare products but is a valuable resource for those using CAE manikins and simulators.

Behind the Sim Curtain

Country of Origin: USA
Funding: Private – Kam McCowan
Online features: Features a lot of information on simulation lab operations - practical how-tos, operating, cleaning and maintaining manikins, moulage, part-task trainers, props and modifications.
Categories: Laboratory technicians; Moulage, Manikins; Simulation How-tos; Networking
Review: A site with a practical focus for laboratory technicians and simulation educators. Free and open access with lots of downloads available in Word and PDF format.

True Plastic Surgery

Country of Origin: Australia
Funding: Private – Cyle Sprick
Online features: A blog sharing tips and tricks for making, using, and modifying simulation equipment.
Categories: Blogs; Tips and Tricks.
Review: Some great inventions and advice ranging from the simple but essential manikin transport handcuffs to DIY manikin upgrades. Worth a look as this site has some really interesting and original content.

Simulating Healthcare

Country of Origin: USA
Funding: Private – Paul Phramphus
Online features: Comprehensive blog site focussing on theoretical and practical issues relating to simulation. Archived posts date back to November 2012.
Categories: Blogs; Tips and Tricks; 
Review: An interesting discussion of contemporary issues in healthcare simulation.

Simulation User Network

Country of Origin: USA
Funding: Laerdal
Online features: Online forum aimed at laboratory technicians and simulation educators. There are many posts on functional and technical aspects of Laerdal manikins. Downloads include scenario files, presentations from USA, AUS, ASEAN and NZ SUN Meetings 2010-2014
Categories: Manikins; Events; Networking; scenarios
Review: Forum is monitored by Laerdal staff who will respond to questions and issues promptly. The downloads are a great resource. Create a free account using email which will give access to downloads and allow contribution to forums.

Games in Simulation and Healthcare

Country of Origin: USA
Funding: University of Wisconsin
Online features: A resource portal with links to simulation and gaming sites, literature, simulation centres and calendar of events.
Categories: Events; Games; news
Review: This is worth a look just for the comprehensive lists of simulation centres  worldwide and simulation based games.


Country of Origin: USA
Funding: private – founded by Lance Baily and Jackie Morck
Online features: Product review site for simulation products and technology. Leading industry vendors are now supporting this website with more detailed product information. New features are being added monthly. Validated community with no anonymous reviews has over 200 reviews from 650 members and is growing.
Categories: Manikins; technology; Laboratory technicians; Moulage
Review: A first of its kind, this site has filled a much needed gap in the market and is user focused. A valuable resource for those involved in making purchasing decisions. Free membership, login with LinkedIn or email account required to read or contribute reviews.

NZASH – New Zealand Association for Simulation in Healthcare

Country of Origin: New Zealand
Funding: Professional Organisation – membership based
Online features: Events and networking for healthcare simulation professionals.
Categories: Networking; Events; Forum
Review: Annual fee NZD$50 for membership period 1 July to 30 June. Doesn’t have a lot of extra information or links other than a list of NZ Simulation centres.




SimMan3G maintenance checklist

Use this checklist for your scheduled maintenance for SimMan3G.

Date:                                                       Inspected by:                                                                          Time Taken:


Run the Manikin in the “healthy patient” mode while performing checks and inspections. Fill fluid reservoirs with 60% isopropyl alcohol for simultaneous testing and cleaning of fluid systems. Most of the manikin sensed events should occur while you are performing the checks. Consult your log on the instructor PC to check that they were registered by the manikin.


  • Test run for at least 15 minutes
  • Tubing secure, no wear and tear
  • No unusual sounds, smells or overheating
  • Normal chest rise and fall


  • Computer, monitor, manikin (and AVS) all linked
  • Computer graphics and commands function normally
  • Patient monitor graphics and commands function normally
  • Touch screen aligned
  • Surfaces cleaned
  • Operator Voice functions
  • Manikin  voice sounds function
  • Auscultation sites function (heart, lung, abdomen, cubital fossa)
  • BP cuff functions
  • BP cuff calibrated
  • BP cuff cleaned
  • Pulse ox probe functions
  • Pulse ox cleaned


  • Outer skin inspected for wear
  • Outer skin cleaned and prepped (light dusting of talcum powder)
  • Head fluids tested (sweat, tears, nose, ears, froth, drool)
  • Airway intact (visualised, no wear or lubricant build-up)
  • Cyanosis test
  • Intubation test
  • Tongue edema test
  • Trismus test
  • Decreased cervical ROM test
  • Pharyngeal obstruction test
  • Laryngeal spasm test
  • Eyes blink slow, normal, fast, wink, closed, half open, open
  • Pupils constricted, normal, dilated, responsive to light
  • Convulsions test
  • Pneumothorax test L and R
  • Lung resistance test L and R
  • Stomach distension test
  • Pulses palpated (Carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, dorsalis pedis, popliteal, posterior tibial) L and R
  • Neck skin inspected
  • Cricothyroid membrane inspected
  • Chest wall plate lifted, inspected and powdered
  • Lungs inspected/powdered
  • Breathing bladder inspected/powdered
  • Tension pneumo decompression sites inspected/powdered
  • Defib plates clean and in good condition
  • Defibrillation of manikin tested at           joules
  • ECG attachment sites clean and in good condition
  • Genitalia cleaned and dried
  • IM pads in good condition and dry
  • Intraosseous sites inspected
  • Internal wiring and pneumatics inspected and secure
  • Bleeding sites tested
  • Micturition and Foley catheterisation (size 16F) tested
  • IV arm flow meter tested and calibrated
  • IV arm skin removed and cleaned, no smells or signs of mould
  • IV arm veins inspected for wear
  • IV arm flushed with 60% isopropyl alcohol

Manikin Sensed Events

  • RFID head
  • RFID IV arm
  • CPR – detects depth and rate
  • Ventilations
  • Eyes examined
  • Pulses (see above)
  • Jaw thrust test
  • Head tilt
  • Attach 3-lead ECG
  • Manual/automatic BP
  • Urinary catheter

Manikin Statistics (got to tools>maintenance>manikin statistics)

Number of minutes powered from battery                          

Number of minutes powered from mains                            

Number of times powered on                               



Blood clots

How to make blood clots: Trevor Fetherstonhaugh – Simulation Technician, La Trobe Rural Health School

Ok, here is a really quick cooking lesson.  You will be able to source gelatine sheets from the supermarket.  I normally purchase bulk fake blood from Limbs & Things, or Laerdal.  

Lots of other places do it, even fancy dress makeup suppliers like Mehron.

Ingredients & Supplies

  • Gelatine sheets (1 Sheet)
  • Fake blood (100ml will be more than enough)
  • Mixing bowl (such as a Kidney Dish)
  • Mixing tool (i.e. Tongue Depressor)
  • Gloves and apron (recommended if you don’t want blood stains all over your hands and clothing!)


  1. Cut gelatine sheet into thin strips (a couple of millimetres wide).  They don’t need to be precise, and if they break up that makes them even better.
  2. Put strips of gelatine into a mixing bowl.
  3. Add fake blood.
  4. Stir with mixing tool.
  5. Leave to rest for at least 30 minutes (the longer the better).  The gelatine needs a little while to soften and absorb the fake blood.


Gelatine will absorb the fake blood and turn into long string clots (depending on how you have cut the gelatine).  These can then be used to simulate blood clots.  Remember that depending on what type you use, the fake blood may leave stains.

Instructions with images

Gelatine Sheets (1 Sheet)

Fake Blood (100ml will be more than enough)
Mixing bowl (such as a Kidney Dish)
Mixing tool (i.e. Tongue Depressor)
Gloves and Apron (if you are messy and don’t want blood stains all over your hands and clothing!)

Cut Gelatine Sheet into thin strips (a couple of millimetres wide).  They don’t need to be precise, and if they break up that makes them even better

Put strips of Gelatine into a mixing bowl

Add Fake Blood and stir with Mixing tool

Leave to rest for at least 30 minutes (the longer the better).  The Gelatine needs a little while to soften and absorb the Fake blood

Gelatine will absorb the Fake Blood and turn into long string clots (depending on how you have cut the Gelatine).  These can then be used to simulate blood clots.  Remember that, depending on what type you use, the fake blood may leave stains….


Best in show poster submission at SimGHOSTS

Nicholas May, Technician from La Trobe University Albury Wodonga, submitted a poster showcase at this year’s SimGHOSTS conference, held in Melbourne on 5-8 July.  Nick's poster focused on an equipment hack to repair a simulated placenta.  The poster was awarded the Best In Show prize in the DIY section.

See the poster presentation here.

Find out more about SimGHOSTS, including upcoming events, by visiting their web page.


Simulated limbs to aid prosthetic teaching


To develop a new, more advanced Masters Degree curriculum, the National Centre for Prosthetics and Orthotics (NCPO) staff identified some challenges to meet the goals of the new program within the proscribed La Trobe University framework. These include teaching students to a higher academic level as required from a Masters level program and providing sufficient practical skills training with reduced class contact hours.

To meet these challenges, we developed a unique teaching tool that reduced the staff teaching load and yet improved the quality of the student learning experience: The production of models that simulate an Amputated Transtibial Limb.

Simulated Limb Prototype

A prototype of a simulated transtibial amputated stump model for teaching in the NCPO’s Masters Degree program was created by NCPO staff. This model is far more complex than just a ‘rubber leg’ as it aims to reproduce the underlying bony structures and connective tissues found in a real transtibial amputee. No such model is available commercially and we think that this may be a world first in Prosthetics & Orthotics teaching programs. After testing and evaluation by a number of internal and external clinicians, a company was engaged to construct 15 limbs for use in teaching.

 Simulated Limb Models

The simulated amputated limb models have a plastic skeleton structure under soft foam with a silicone skin over the outside. The skeleton has structural bony details that are commonly used as landmarks for prosthetic palpation and within the soft foam, firmer muscular and connective tissues are included. These models allow students to learn at their own pace in a minimally supervised setting. Students are able to palpate the appropriate anatomical structural features and take plaster casts of the model that capture these features like in a real amputee patient, before they interact with the live amputee volunteers. Risks to the safety and welfare of volunteer amputee patients will be reduced, and students will not need the high level of supervision required when casting the volunteer transtibial amputee patients.

When students actually come to cast real patients, they have gained better plaster handling and casting skills as well as greater confidence in tissue palpation and anatomical landmark identification. This enhances their learning, as students will be able to concentrate their efforts on the clinical applications of their work, having already mastered the basic aspects of tissue palpation and plaster casting.

Benefits of Simulated Amputated Limb Models

Face to face class demonstrations and student interaction with the amputees still occur but instead of having to undertake these processes with little individual practice and undeveloped hand-skills, students are more skilled in the palpation, manipulation and plaster casting of the amputee’s limb. While producing these models is fairly expensive, the simulated amputated limb models should be able to be used for many years to come. As the learning experience with the simulated limbs is largely self-directed, the number of repeated, closely supervised sessions with volunteer amputees and sessional clinicians has been reduced.

The Sim Limb Data

View powerpoint presentation: Evaluation of simulated limb in teaching transtibial prostheticsimb in teaching transtibial prosthetics


The production of this teaching aid has been made possible with support from the Faculty of Health Sciences and the School of Allied Health, La Trobe University.